Here is what I know after living among both the Han and the Uyghur people in Urumuqi, China for 5 months:
Overall, the Uyghurs are not and have never been treated well by the Han Chinese. The Hans were actually sent to Xinjiang province (then known as Uyghurstan) in order to breed out the Uyghurs.
picture of Uyghur women baking bread (gosh I miss that bread!) in a Tandoori oven
The Uyghurs are not permitted to hold high government offices and are generally poor, many living in literal mud huts. They are down trodden and oppressed by the Hans and their government and have been since their country was invaded.
In the picture below, we look down on a courtyard belonging to some of our Uyghur friends
It is incredibly difficult for the Uyghurs to get a good education as the good schools are taken up by the Han population (the school Noah and I taught at had roughly 4,000 students, 30 of those were Uyghurs with an administration that was entirely Han). See what they're up against?